Incompressible Fluids

General Introduction

In CoolProp, the incompressible fluids are divided into three major groups.

The pure fluids and mass-based binary mixtures are by far the most common fluids in this library. While the pure fluids contain data for many different kinds of incompressible liquids, almost all of the binary mixtures are aqueous solutions. For these liquids, the concentration always refers to the added component ranging from 0.0 for pure water to 1.0 for no water at all. Please refer to the tables below to find the allowed minimum and maximum concentrations. Those are likely to be above 0.0 and below 1.0, respectively.

The first entry in the tables below is the fluid ID that can be used to call the fluid from the high-level interface. A single PDF page showing the fit quality is linked to that ID in case you would like to see a few more details about any specific fluid. To get an overview over all the fits, there are also combined documents with all the pure fluids and all the aqueous solutions. You can read more about these reports in a dedicated section called Fitting Reports.

All incompressible fluids have an arbitrary reference state for enthalpy and entropy. During initialisation, the reference state is defined as a temperature of 20 °C and a pressure of 1 atm according to the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

\[\begin{split}T_\text{ref} &= 293.15\:\text{K} &= 68\:\text{°F} \\ p_\text{ref} &= 101325\:\text{Pa} &= 14.696\:\text{psi} \\ h_\text{ref} &= 0\:\text{J}\,\text{kg}^{-1} & \\ s_\text{ref} &= 0\:\text{J}\,\text{kg}^{-1}\,\text{K}^{-1} & \\\end{split}\]

Note

If you use a mixture, the reference state gets updated each time you change the composition. Furthermore, not all temperatures can be used as reference temperature since the fraction \(T_\text{in,1} / T_\text{in,0}\) occurs in the integral used to calculate entropy. The centered fits have a base temperature and setting \(T_\text{ref}\) equal to \(T_\text{base}\) yields \(T_\text{in,0}=0\:\text{K}\), which obviously is a problem. For non-centred fits, the base temperature is equal to 0 K. Read on below for more details.

Pure Fluid Examples

Incompressible fluids only allow for a limited subset of input variables. The following input pairs are supported: \(f(p,T)\), \(f(p,h)\), \(f(p,\rho)\) and \(f(p,s)\). Some fluids also provide saturation state information as \(f(Q,T)\) with \(Q=0\). All functions iterate on \(f(p,T)\) calls internally, which makes this combination by far the fastest. However, also the other inputs should be fast compared to the full Helmholtz-based EOS implemented for then compressible fluids.

A call to the top-level function PropsSI can provide: temperature, pressure, density, heat capacity, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, viscosity and thermal conductivity. Hence, the available output keys are: T, P, D, C, U, H, S, V, L, Tmin and Tmax.

In [1]: from CoolProp.CoolProp import PropsSI

#Specific heat capacity of Downtherm Q at 500 K and 1 atm
In [2]: PropsSI('C','T',500,'P',101325,'INCOMP::DowQ')
Out[2]: 2288.1643758645673

#Density of Downtherm Q at 500 K and 1 atm.
In [3]: PropsSI('D','T',500,'P',101325,'INCOMP::DowQ')
Out[3]: 809.0654931667821

#Round trip in thermodynamic properties
In [4]: T_init = 500.0

In [5]: P_init = 101325

In [6]: D_init = PropsSI('D','T',T_init,'P',P_init,'INCOMP::DowQ')

In [7]: S_init = PropsSI('S','D',D_init,'P',P_init,'INCOMP::DowQ')

In [8]: H_init = PropsSI('H','S',S_init,'P',P_init,'INCOMP::DowQ')

In [9]: T_init = PropsSI('T','H',H_init,'P',P_init,'INCOMP::DowQ')

In [10]: T_init
Out[10]: 500.0000000000001

#Saturation pressure of Downtherm Q at 500 K
In [11]: PropsSI('P','T',500,'Q',0,'INCOMP::DowQ')
Out[11]: 38091.37403658103

#Minimum temperature for Downtherm Q
In [12]: PropsSI('Tmin','T',0,'P',0,'INCOMP::DowQ')
Out[12]: 238.15

#Maximum temperature for Downtherm Q
In [13]: PropsSI('Tmax','T',0,'P',0,'INCOMP::DowQ')
Out[13]: 633.15

Mixture Examples

Almost the same syntax can be used for mixtures. Please note that the mixture interface developed for CoolProp 5 has not been ported to the incompressible fluids, yet. For now, you have to use the PropsSI function with a special composition notation. Depending on your fluid, you have to supply either the mass fraction or the volume fraction as additional parameter. This is done via the fluid name by appending a dash and the fraction of the substance other than water. The fraction notation can be in the form of percent, LiBr-23%, or as a fraction between 0 and 1, LiBr[0.23], which corresponds to the new mixture syntax in CoolProp v5.

In [14]: from CoolProp.CoolProp import PropsSI

#Density of a lithium bromide solution at 300 K and 1 atm.
In [15]: PropsSI('D','T',300,'P',101325,'INCOMP::LiBr[0.23]')
Out[15]: 1187.5438243617216

#Density of a lithium bromide solution at 300 K and 1 atm.
In [16]: PropsSI('D','T',300,'P',101325,'INCOMP::LiBr-23%')
Out[16]: 1187.5438243617216

#Specific heat capacity of a lithium bromide solution at 300 K and 1 atm
In [17]: PropsSI('C','T',300,'P',101325,'INCOMP::LiBr-23%')
Out[17]: 3101.436382304021

#Specific enthalpy of a lithium bromide solution at 300 K and 1 atm
In [18]: PropsSI('H','T',300,'P',101325,'INCOMP::LiBr-23%')
Out[18]: 21182.70027246687

In [19]: PropsSI('T','H',28627,'P',101325,'INCOMP::LiBr-23%')
Out[19]: 302.3981212987372

Warning

Some mixture function have a non-monotonic behaviour, this can lead to misleading results when using other inputs than \(f(p,T)\). Keep that in mind and implement a way to validate the results you get from these functions. At the same time, mixture solvers are likely to produce errors due to the same reason...

Partial Derivatives

A limited subset of partial derivatives is available for the incompressible fluids. Currently, the following inputs are supported by the PropsSI function: \(\left( \partial \rho / \partial p \right)_{T,x}=0\), \(\left( \partial \rho / \partial h \right)_{p,x}\), \(\left( \partial \rho / \partial s \right)_{p,x}\), \(\left( \partial \rho / \partial T \right)_{p,x}\), \(\left( \partial h / \partial p \right)_{T,x}\), \(\left( \partial h / \partial s \right)_{T,x}\), \(\left( \partial h / \partial T \right)_{p,x}\), \(\left( \partial s / \partial p \right)_{T,x}\), \(\left( \partial s / \partial T \right)_{p,x}\), and their inverse functions.

Note that all partial derivatives require a constant concentration, which is denoted by the \(x\), but this \(x\) is not included in the derivative string notation for PropsSI: \(\left( \partial \rho / \partial T \right)_{p,x}\) translates to d(Dmass)/d(T)|P.

Note

You can calculate other properties from the partial derivatives available. At this point, not all derived properties have been implemented even though some of them can be computed like the isobaric expansion coefficient, which would be \(-\left( \partial \rho / \partial T \right)_{p,x}/\rho\).

For more general information on the partial derivatives, please have a look at the documentation for the high level interface.

Fitting Reports

A file with all fitting reports for the incompressible fluids can be obtained from here. These reports help you to get an overview over the different incompressible fluids included in CoolProp. The reports start with some basic information about the fluid. The fluid name used in CoolProp is in the title “Fitting Report for FluidName” and there is also a description of what the fluid actually consists of. The latter could also be a trade name or a commonly used non-scientific name. The next item tells you where we got the data from. This would typically be a data sheet from a manufacturer’s homepage, some other software database, a scientific publication or experimental data.

Fitting reports for pure fluid and solution

The figure above shows two examples for fitting reports generated for a pure fluid and a binary mixture. You can also have a look at the PDF version of the reports side by side.

If all data are available, there is a graph for each of the basic quantities: density \(\rho\), specific heat capacity \(c\), thermal conductivity \(\lambda\), dynamic viscosity \(\mu\), saturation pressure \(p_\text{sat}\), and freezing temperature \(T_\text{freeze}\). These graphs show data points in dark blue, the fitted function from CoolProp as a red line and the relative error in light blue dots. Note that the relative error uses the ordinate on the right hand side while the other two data series refer to the axis on the left hand side. In case of a solution, these graphs refer to a given concentration that typically lies in the middle of the allowed range. Dashed red lines indicate the limits in terms of concentration as well as the freezing temperature.

Thermodynamics of Incompressible Fluids

For an incompressible fluid, the specific at constant volume and at constant pressure are the same allowing us to drop the subscripts, \(c_p=c_v=c\). Using temperature \(T\) and pressure \(p\) as state variables, we can simplify the normal thermodynamic relation as described below. working with brines and mixtures, the concentration \(x\) has to be considered as well. Following the same approach as for the compressible fluids, we regard mixtures with different compositions as independent fluids. This should be kept in mind when comparing properties for different compositions. Setting the reference state for one composition will always affect all fluids consisting of the same components.

Note

The internal routines for the incompressibles were updated 2015-02-10, the documentation is not fully updated. We are going to add the new equation as soon as possible, probably mid-March 2015. Please be patient.

According to Melinder [3] and Skovrup [4], using a centred approach for the independent variables enhances the fit quality. Therefore, all solutions have a base temperature and concentration in the original works as well as in CoolProp: \(x_\text{in} = x - x_\text{base}\) and \(T_\text{in} = T - T_\text{base}\), this technique does not affect the calculation of the derived quantity internal energy since the formula contains temperature differences. However, integrating \(c(x_\text{in},T_\text{in})T_\text{in}^{-1}dT_\text{in}\) for the entropy requires some changes due to the logarithm.

Warning

You must not use the base temperature \(T_\text{base}\) as reference temperature for your thermodynamic states. This will lead to an error caused by a division by zero during the integration carried out to obtain the entropy.

To structure the problem, we introduce a variable \(f(j,T)\), which will be expressed by a third sum. As a first step for simplification, one has to expand the the binomial \((T-T_{base})^n\) to a series. Only containing \(j\) and \(T\), \(f\) is independent from \(x_\text{in}\) and can be computed outside the loop for enhanced computational efficiency. An integration of the expanded binomial then yields the final factor \(F\) to be multiplied with the other coefficients and the concentration.

\[\begin{split}\int_{0}^{1} \left( \frac{\partial s}{\partial T} \right)_p dT &= \int_{0}^{1} \frac{c\left( x_\text{in},T_\text{in} \right)}{T_\text{in}} dT_\text{in} = \sum_{i=0}^n x_\text{in}^i \cdot \sum_{j=0}^m C_{c}[i,j] \cdot F(j,T_\text{in,0},T_\text{in,1}) \\ F &= (-1)^j \cdot \ln \left( \frac{T_\text{in,1}}{T_\text{in,0}} \right) \cdot T_{base}^j + \sum_{k=0}^{j-1} \binom{j}{k} \cdot \frac{(-1)^k}{j-k} \cdot \left( T_\text{in,1}^{j-k} - T_\text{in,0}^{j-k} \right) \cdot T_{base}^k\end{split}\]

Equations

There are only four different equations used to calculate the thermophysical properties of incompressible fluids in CoolProp:

\[\begin{split}f(T) &= \exp \left( \frac{C[0]}{T+C[1]} - C[2] \right) \text{, } \\ f(T) &= \exp \left( \log \left( \sum_{i=0}^l \left( T+C[0] \right)^{-i-1} \right) \cdot C[1] + C[2] \right) \text{, } \\ f(T,x)&= \sum_{i=0}^n x^i \cdot \sum_{j=0}^m C[i,j] \cdot T^j \text{ and } \\ f(T,x)&= \exp \left( \sum_{i=0}^n x^i \cdot \sum_{j=0}^m C[i,j] \cdot T^j \right) \text{. } \\\end{split}\]

Only the last two are suitable for mixtures with the input parameter \(x\) denoting the fraction of component other than water. Following the works of Melinder [3] and Skovrup [4], the exponents for the polynomials are arranged in a triangular matrix to avoid overfitting. These conditions satisfy \(0 \leq i \leq n\), \(0 \leq j \leq m\) and \(i + j \leq \max(n,m)\). It is only for the freezing temperature calculation that the implemented procedures differ from what is presented in Melinder’s book [3]. Freezing temperature is only a function of concentration and the dependency on the fluid temperature has been removed. For mixtures, \(m=5\) and \(n=3\) are assigned as default values. Omitting the composition term with \(n=0\) yields the pure fluid formulations for which we selected \(l=1\) and \(m=4\).

The standard polynomials are used for the density, heat capacity and thermal conductivity functions, while viscosity, vapour pressure and freezing temperature are exponential functions. For exponential functions of only one variable (\(\mu(T)\), \(p_\text{sat}(T)\), \(T_\text{freeze}(x)\)), we start by fitting the first equation. If the fit quality is poor, we try the second exponential function. The exponential polynomial is used as a fall-back function for single variable fits and it is the only function used for multivariate fits, e.g. \(\mu(T,x)\).

If you would like to know more about the fitting procedures, you can have a look at this Python notebook, which describes the basics of the multivariate polynomial fits employed in this software. Non-polynomial functions are fitted using the minimisation routines accessible through SciPy [5]. For the extremely curious, the Python module CPIncomp contains the source code for the fits used in CoolProp as well as the code to generate the fitting reports. Feel free to browse the code.

The Different Fluids

The fluids implemented in CoolProp cover a wide range of industrial heat transfer media. This database has initially been developed with refrigeration systems in mind. That is why the majority of fluids are secondary refrigerants with application temperatures close to the freezing point of water. Besides those, there is also incompressible water, high temperature heat transfer oils and a molten salt mixture for extreme temperatures.

Besides the different technical data sheets and calculation tools provided by manufactures, two specific publications provided a lot of data used for the incompressible fluids: Åke Melinder’s book Properties of Secondary Working Fluids for Indirect Systems [3] has inspired both, the work on pure fluids and aqueous solutions. The second major source of inspiration is the SecCool [4] software, which contains data compiled by Morten Juel Skovrup. It is provided free of charge by his employer IPU.

All incompressible pure fluids included in CoolProp
Name Description Reference \(T_\text{min}\) (°C) \(T_\text{max}\) (°C) \(T_\text{base}\) (K)
AS10 Aspen Temper -10, Potassium acetate/formate [6][4] -10.00 30.00 273.15
AS20 Aspen Temper -20, Potassium acetate/formate [6][4] -20.00 30.00 273.15
AS30 Aspen Temper -30, Potassium acetate/formate [6][4] -30.00 30.00 273.15
AS40 Aspen Temper -40, Potassium acetate/formate [6][4] -40.00 30.00 273.15
AS55 Aspen Temper -55, Potassium acetate/formate [6][4] -55.00 30.00 273.15
DEB Diethylbenzene mixture - Dowtherm J [3] -80.00 100.00 0.00
DowJ DowthermJ [7] -80.00 345.00 405.65
DowJ2 Dowtherm J, Diethylbenzene mixture [7][4] -73.00 315.00 394.15
DowQ DowthermQ [7] -35.00 360.00 435.65
DowQ2 Dowtherm Q, Diphenylethane/alkylated aromatics [7][4] -35.00 330.00 420.65
HC10 Dynalene HC10 [8] -10.00 218.00 377.15
HC20 Dynalene HC20 [8] -20.00 210.00 368.15
HC30 Dynalene HC30 [8] -30.00 210.00 363.15
HC40 Dynalene HC40 [8] -40.00 200.00 353.15
HC50 Dynalene HC50 [8] -50.00 210.00 353.15
HCB Hydrocarbon blend - Dynalene MV [3] -80.00 100.00 0.00
HCM Hydrocarbon mixture - Gilotherm D12 [3] -80.00 100.00 0.00
HFE Hydrofluoroether - HFE-7100 3M Novec [3] -80.00 100.00 0.00
HFE2 HFE-7100, Hydrofluoroether [9][4] -80.33 64.27 265.12
HY20 HYCOOL 20, Potassium formate [10] -20.00 50.00 273.15
HY30 HyCool 30, Potassium formate [10] -30.00 50.00 273.15
HY40 HyCool 40, Potassium formate [10] -40.00 20.00 273.15
HY45 HyCool 45, Potassium formate [10] -45.00 20.00 273.15
HY50 HyCool 50, Potassium formate [10] -50.00 20.00 273.15
NBS NBS, Water [11][4] 1.00 100.00 323.65
NaK Nitrate salt, 0.6 NaNO3 and 0.4 KNO3 [12] 300.00 600.00 273.15
PBB Pirobloc HTF-BASIC [http://www.fluidotermico.com] 50.00 300.00 448.15
PCL Paracryol, Aliphatic Hydrocarbon [13][4] -40.00 180.00 343.15
PCR Paratherm CR [14] -100.00 220.00 333.15
PGLT Paratherm GLT [14] -15.00 315.00 423.15
PHE Paratherm HE [14] 0.00 330.00 438.15
PHR Paratherm HR [14] -15.00 370.00 450.65
PLR Paratherm LR [14] -85.00 230.00 345.65
PMR Paratherm MR [14] -40.00 315.00 410.65
PMS1 Polydimethylsiloxan 1 - Baysilone KT3 [3] -80.00 100.00 0.00
PMS2 Polydimethylsiloxan 2 - Syltherm XLT [3] -80.00 100.00 0.00
PNF Paratherm NF [14] -10.00 315.00 425.65
PNF2 Paratherm NF, Hydrotreated mineral oil [14][4] -10.00 320.00 428.15
S800 Syltherm 800 [Dow Chemical Company - FLUIDFILE Software accessed February 2016] -40.00 398.00 452.15
SAB Synthetic alkyl benzene - Marlotherm X [3] -80.00 100.00 0.00
T66 Therminol66 [15] 0.00 380.00 463.15
T72 Therminol72 [15] -10.00 380.00 458.15
TCO Citrus oil terpene - d-Limonene [3] -80.00 100.00 0.00
TD12 TherminolD12 [15] -85.00 230.00 345.65
TVP1 TherminolVP1 [15] 12.00 397.00 477.65
TVP1869 Thermogen VP 1869 [16][4] -80.00 20.00 273.15
TX22 Texatherm22 [17] 0.00 350.00 448.15
TY10 Tyfoxit 1.10, Potassium Acetate [18][4] -10.00 40.00 288.15
TY15 Tyfoxit 1.15, Potassium Acetate [18][4] -20.00 40.00 283.15
TY20 Tyfoxit 1.20, Potassium Acetate [18][4] -40.00 40.00 273.15
TY24 Tyfoxit 1.24, Potassium Acetate [18][4] -55.00 40.00 265.65
Water Fit of EOS from 1 bar to 100 bar [19][ Huber-JPCRD-2009] 0.00 200.00 373.15
XLT SylthermXLT [7] -100.00 260.00 353.15
XLT2 Syltherm XLT, Polydimethylsiloxan [7][4] -100.00 260.00 353.15
ZS10 Zitrec S10, Potassium formate/Sodium propionate [20][4] -8.00 90.00 314.15
ZS25 Zitrec S25, Potassium formate/Sodium propionate [20][4] -23.00 90.00 306.65
ZS40 Zitrec S40, Potassium formate/Sodium propionate [20][4] -38.00 90.00 299.15
ZS45 Zitrec S45, Potassium formate/Sodium propionate [20][4] -43.00 90.00 296.65
ZS55 Zitrec S55, Potassium formate/Sodium propionate [20][4] -55.00 90.00 290.65

There are also a number of water-based mixtures implemented in CoolProp. Most of them are secondary heat transfer fluids, but there are also aqueous solutions of ammonia [3], MAM, and lithium bromide [21], LiBr, which can be used to model absorption chillers.

All incompressible mass-based binary mixtures included in CoolProp
Name Description Reference \(T_\text{min}\) (°C) \(T_\text{max}\) (°C) \(T_\text{base}\) (K) \(x_\text{min}\) \(x_\text{max}\)
FRE Freezium, Potassium Formate [22][4] -40.15 39.85 273.15 0.19 0.50
IceEA Ice slurry with Ethanol [23][4] -33.15 -8.15 252.50 0.05 0.35
IceNA Ice slurry with NaCl [23][4] -18.15 -3.15 262.50 0.05 0.35
IcePG Ice slurry with Propylene Glycol [23][4] -43.15 -8.15 247.50 0.05 0.35
LiBr Lithium-bromide solution - aq [21] -0.15 226.85 386.50 0.00 0.75
MAM Ammonia (NH3) - aq [3] -100.00 30.00 268.50 0.00 0.30
MAM2 Melinder, Ammonia [3][4] -49.00 20.00 258.65 0.08 0.24
MCA Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) - aq [3] -100.00 40.00 280.68 0.00 0.30
MCA2 Melinder, Calcium Chloride [3][4] -44.00 30.00 266.15 0.09 0.29
MEA Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanol) - aq [3] -100.00 40.00 281.31 0.00 0.60
MEA2 Melinder, Ethanol [3][4] -44.00 20.00 261.15 0.11 0.60
MEG Ethylene Glycol - aq [3] -100.00 100.00 304.88 0.00 0.60
MEG2 Melinder, Ethylene Glycol [3][4] -44.00 40.00 271.15 0.00 0.56
MGL Glycerol - aq [3] -100.00 40.00 282.06 0.00 0.60
MGL2 Melinder, Glycerol [3][4] -40.00 40.00 273.15 0.20 0.63
MITSW MIT Seawater [24] 0.00 120.00 333.15 0.00 0.12
MKA Potassium Acetate (CH3CO2K) - aq [3] -100.00 40.00 279.93 0.00 0.45
MKA2 Melinder, Potassium Acetate [3][4] -44.00 30.00 266.15 0.11 0.41
MKC Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3) - aq [3] -100.00 40.00 284.39 0.00 0.40
MKC2 Melinder, Potassium Carbonate [3][4] -35.00 30.00 270.65 0.00 0.39
MKF Potassium Formate (CHKO2) - aq [3] -100.00 40.00 279.04 0.00 0.48
MLI Lithium Chloride (LiCl) - aq [3] -100.00 40.00 274.64 0.00 0.24
MMA Methyl Alcohol (Methanol) - aq [3] -100.00 40.00 276.69 0.00 0.60
MMA2 Melinder, Methanol [3][4] -50.00 20.00 258.15 0.08 0.47
MMG MgCl2 - aq [3] -100.00 40.00 282.47 0.00 0.30
MMG2 Melinder, Magnesium Chloride [3][4] -30.00 30.00 273.15 0.00 0.20
MNA Sodium Chloride (NaCl) - aq [3] -100.00 40.00 285.77 0.00 0.23
MNA2 Melinder, Sodium Chloride [3][4] -20.00 30.00 278.15 0.00 0.23
MPG Propylene Glycol - aq [3] -100.00 100.00 305.86 0.00 0.60
MPG2 Melinder, Propylene Glycol [3][4] -45.00 40.00 270.65 0.15 0.57
VCA VDI, Calcium Cloride [25][4] -55.00 20.00 255.65 0.15 0.30
VKC VDI, Potassium Carbonate [25][4] -35.00 20.00 265.65 0.13 0.39
VMA VDI, Methanol [25][4] -80.00 0.00 233.15 0.10 0.90
VMG VDI, Magnesium Chloride [25][4] -33.00 20.00 266.65 0.07 0.21
VNA VDI, Sodium Chloride [25][4] -21.00 20.00 272.65 0.07 0.23
All incompressible volume-based binary mixtures included in CoolProp
Name Description Reference \(T_\text{min}\) (°C) \(T_\text{max}\) (°C) \(T_\text{base}\) (K) \(x_\text{min}\) \(x_\text{max}\)
AEG ASHRAE, Ethylene Glycol [26][4] -35.00 100.00 305.65 0.10 0.60
AKF Antifrogen KF, Potassium Formate [27][4] -40.00 50.00 278.15 0.40 1.00
AL Antifrogen L, Propylene Glycol [27][4] -40.00 80.00 293.15 0.10 0.60
AN Antifrogen N, Ethylene Glycol [27][4] -40.00 80.00 293.15 0.10 0.60
APG ASHRAE, Propylene Glycol [26][4] -35.00 100.00 305.65 0.10 0.60
GKN Glykosol N, Ethylene Glycol [28][4] -53.00 100.00 296.65 0.10 0.60
PK2 Pekasol 2000, K acetate/formate [28][4] -62.00 100.00 292.15 0.30 1.00
PKL Pekasol L, Propylene Glycol [28][4] -49.00 100.00 298.65 0.10 0.60
ZAC Zitrec AC, Corrosion Inhibitor [20][4] 0.00 100.00 323.15 0.06 0.50
ZFC Zitrec FC, Propylene Glycol [20][4] -40.00 100.00 303.15 0.30 0.60
ZLC Zitrec LC, Propylene Glycol [20][4] -50.00 100.00 298.15 0.30 0.70
ZM Zitrec M, Ethylene Glycol [20][4] -50.00 120.00 308.15 0.00 1.00
ZMC Zitrec MC, Ethylene Glycol [20][4] -50.00 110.00 303.15 0.30 0.70

For slurry ice, the concentration \(x\) refers to the solid content and the heat capacity includes the heat of fusion. It might be necessary to adjust the solid content during heat transfer. The implementation is based on the data available in SecCool, which was originally recorded at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI).

Validation figure showing Prandtl numbers for all incompressible fluids

The figure above shows plots of the Prandtl numbers and associated fluid properties for all incompressible fluids covering the whole temperature range for each fluid. The original PDF version is also available for download.